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Insulin is a hormone produced in the body by special cells, called beta. Within cells, it is stored and subsequently used as a source of energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, adipocytes, hepatocytes and muscle cells do not respond properly to that insulin. This is called insulin resistance. As a result of this, blood sugar does not enter these cells in order to be stored as an energy source.

When sugar cannot enter the cells, a high level of it accumulates in the blood, which is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use glucose as energy.

Typically, type 2 diabetes develops slowly over time. Most people with this disease are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis. Increasing fat makes it difficult for the body to use insulin in the right way.  Type 2 diabetes can also occur in people who are not overweight or who are not obese. This is more common in older adults.

Family history and genes play an important role in type 2 diabetes. A low level of activity, a short diet and excessive body weight around the waist increase the risk of this disease.

The short height is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Similarly, tall stature is associated with a lower risk, with every 10 centimetre of height difference associated with a 41% lower risk of diabetes in men and a 33% lower risk in women. The increased risk in lower individuals may be due to a higher fat content in the liver and a less favourable profile of cardiometabolic risk factors.

Short stature has been linked to an increased risk of diabetes in several previous studies, which suggests that height could be used to predict the risk of the condition. Short height is related to an increased cardiovascular risk, a risk that may partly be mediated by cardiometabolic risk factors relevant to type 2 diabetes, for example, blood pressure, blood fats and inflammation. It has been found that insulin compassion are better in case of the taller people. Short height is related to an increased cardiovascular risk, a risk that may partly be mediated by cardiometabolic risk factors relevant to type 2 diabetes, for example, blood pressure, blood fats and inflammation.

Also, longer leg length was associated with a lower risk of diabetes. A slight sex difference was observed: for men, a higher sitting height at the expense of leg length was related to a higher risk, while among women, both leg length and sitting height it contributed to a lower risk. You can help prevent or slow down type 2 diabetes by losing weight if you are overweight, consuming fewer calories and getting more physical activity. Talk to your doctor about any of the conditions listed above that may require medical treatment. Managing these health problems can help reduce your chance of developing type 2 diabetes. Also, ask your doctor about the medications you take that may increase your risk.